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For those dynasties which left us almost nothing, like VII-X and XIV, Manetho is considered the most reliable authority, even though the lack of evidence has caused some to ask if those dynasties really existed.
This may be why Sir Alan Gardiner wrote that 'what is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters'.
It is said that Manetho's main goal was to prove to the Greeks that the Egyptians were the world's oldest people, but that he faced competition; Berosus was trying to do the same thing with his homeland, Mesopotamia, while the chief librarian of the Alexandria library, Erastosthenes, also claimed great antiquity for the Greeks.
It was Manetho who compiled Egyptian history into the thirty dynasties we are familiar with today.
The traditional sources for this study are: ancient records and inscriptions, radio-carbon dating and archaeo-astronomy.
Each of theses methods has its own inherent problems associated to it as an accurate means of determination.
Royal Canon of Turin - This papyrus is the best known surviving chronology of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, but is also the most damaged.The bulge of rock on the chest is all that remains of what may have once been a smaller sculpted figure.The 'Stella' (that dark rectangular monument) between the paws and in front of the chest was erected during the brief reign of Thothmoses IV (1420-1411 BC). Many Egyptologists accept this as evidence that Khafre built the Sphinx. Some time after it was excavated, the particular inscription in question flaked off and we now have only drawings. in a research project conducted by Mark Lehner in 1985-86.Egypt was an arid land before the time of the first Pharaohs.In recent times it has only taken a couple of decades for the Sphinx to be buried up to its neck by sand blown in from the desert, as can be seen in this photo from the 19th Century.