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The atomic number of the resulting daughter nucleus is 1 greater than the radioactive parent nucleus, but the mass number remains the same.
The isotope carbon-14, whose decay is the basis of radiocarbon dating of archaeological artifacts, is an example of radioactive nucleus that undergoes beta- decay.
The atomic number of the resulting daughter nucleus is 1 less than the radioactive parent nucleus, but the mass number remains same.
The isotope fluorine-18, which can be used in medical diagnostic bone scans in the form Na18F is an example of positron emitter: Electron Capture Another way for an unstable nucleus to increase the number of neutrons is to capture an electron from the closest electron shell (the n-1 or K-shell) and use it in the conversion of a proton into a neutron.
An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons.
This is equivalent to a helium-4, so an alpha particle is also denoted by BETA DECAY There are actually three types of beta decay: beta-, beta , and electron capture.
However, the term is used more specifically for all naturally occurring radioactive materials where human activities have increased the potential for exposure compared with the unaltered situation.
The nucleus chromium-51 is an example of a radioactive nucleus that undergoes electron capture, becoming the stable nucleus vanadium-51: GAMMA DECAY When a nucleus is in an excited energy state - which is usually the case after nucleus has undergone alpha or any type of beta decay – it can “relax” to its ground state by releasing energy in the form of one or more photons or electromagnetic radiation.For most human activities involving minerals and raw materials, the levels of exposure to these radionuclides are not significantly greater than normal background levels and are not of concern for radiation protection.However, certain work activities can give rise to significantly enhanced exposures that may need to be controlled by regulation.Material giving rise to these enhanced exposures has become known as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM).NORM is the acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, which potentially includes all radioactive elements found in the environment.
Note: Beta- decay is the most common type of beta decay; when a problem does not specifiy whether or not a beta decay is or -, assume that it is -.