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The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers (caused by writing a document resting on top of a "wet" transferable ink).Online dating is when people meet and decide to date over the internet.The court threw out the fraudulent Will and probated the decedent’s Estate under appropriate statue. He has had extensive training from the FBI and Secret Service.He has contributed testimony on numerous occasions as an expert in this area for the Federal Courts, State Courts, Local Courts, Court Martial Proceedings and State Boards and Regulatory Proceedings.Ink and Toner Intersections – When a signature (or a handwritten notation) intersects a printed text on a document, a forensic document examiner may be asked which came first, the text or the signature (handwritten notation).The answer to that question may determine whether the document has been altered (by adding certain information).In addition to being a Forensic Document Examiner, he is also a Forensic Photographer.There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1.
An examination of the Will was conducted at the County Probate Court and included a microscopic examination, an examination with VSC-4 instrumentation to note any ink differences and a light box to identify and photograph watermarks. The real strike for justice in this case was an undisputed fact from the records of Southworth, the watermark date proving that a sheet of paper was not in existence when the Will was originally executed, thereby page 3 had been inserted at a later date for the purpose of gain. Dawson has over 25 years of experience in the Forensic Document field.Offset marks – When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing (and printing) may be transferred from one to another.When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. For example, if the questioned document’s date precedes the manufacturing date for the ink used to sign the document, it is established that the document could not have been signed on the date it bears. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file (document). – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the use of various inks on the document(s) fits a pattern that is either consistent with the dates appearing on the document(s) or indicates preparation "at one time" (during a short period of time). Paper folds – It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.