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This group felt that in order to be truly free, Indian Muslims needed their own homeland.
There are much smaller Hindu, Christian and Zoroastrian minority communities.
Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims died in the riots that followed independence, as Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan and Hindus who lived in the newly created Pakistan streamed into India.
Refugee camps were created on both sides of the border between the two countries to deal with these mass migrations.
The capital of Pakistan is the modern city of Islamabad, although its cultural and economic centers continue to be Lahore and Karachi. The Indus valley civilization has remained an interest for archaeologists because of the society's high level of sophistication and stability over several centuries.
Pakistan boasts the site of the famed Indus valley civilization (B. Pakistan's ethnic and cultural diversity has been formed through legacies of advancing Persians, Turks, Arabs, Huns, Greeks, and Mongols, most of whom practiced Islam.
Modern-day Pakistan is divided into four major geographic divisions known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan.