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Foucault and the “new criminologists” gave rise to a new dogma that saw rehabilitation as “a case of good intentions corrupted for sinister purposes.” After that point, scholars spent little time studying how to make rehabilitation better.According to Cullen (2005), they were “in fact cheering for showing that treatment programs did not work.”Instead, these reformers wanted to set clear sentencing guidelines and legal protections that would be codified in legal statutes.
Martinson said the same was true of other prison alternatives, like parole with intensive supervision.
This scholarship fueled a wave of reforms that shifted the juvenile justice system away from rehabilitation and toward other goals like deterrence and incapacitation. The 736 pages was the result of a six month effort to comb through every good study they could find about rehabilitation. This was their conclusion: “With few exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have no appreciable effect on recidivism.”Robert Martinson (1974) wrote a summary of that book, in which he examined every conceivable program that might help to reduce recidivism.
In 1966, the Governor of New York gave Robert Martinson, Douglas Lipton and Judith Wilkes one huge task: figure out what needs to be done to enable prisons to actually rehabilitate prisoners. The results, as he presented them, were depressing.
For instance, doing well in a prison’s educational programming or counselling made no impact on recidivism.
Further, Martinson’s review found that the length of a sentence had no impact on recidivism.
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