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The yellowish-brown chloroplasts within Brown Diatom algae are what give this “algae” its typical appearance.
Brown Diatoms are found in fresh and saltwater as well as soil.
Green Spot Algae is often eliminated with increasing phosphate levels in your water.
I will add to and update this article as well over time.
From the Aquarium Answers article; “Aquarium Test Kits” here are some silicate parameters: Natural seawaters contain silicates around 10 ppm however due to differences in a closed system (which an aquarium is) and the ocean it is best to maintain silicates under 1 ppm in an aquarium to prevent diatom blooms and aid in uptake of essential elements such as Strontium by corals.
Reference: Aquarium Test Kits; Information, Review Product Resource: Salifert Silicate/Silica Test Kit In freshwater, silicates are generally between 4-20 ppm and should be kept under 4 ppm in an aquarium, although usually this is not a problem in healthy established freshwater aquariums where lighting is good to encourage plants or green algae (both of which will starve also consume silicates limiting diatom growth).
What is also noteworthy is there is evidence of some diatom "algae" as a green colored slime like algae instead of the much more common brown diatom algae that is a common problem with new aquariums.
This has been called "Green Snot Algae" (scientific name Didymosphenia geminata) and is becoming more common in streams just under the surface and/or covering rocks (pictured to the right).
Finally as per Silicates, do NOT confuse these with silicon/silica, as the later is inert while Silicates are not!