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Jewish women in this cohort continue to adapt to change and challenge even as they seek new ways to maintain their Jewish identities.
Sources on these women are abundant throughout the Library of Congress and may be found as part of collections discussed throughout this guide, through catalog searches by individual name or organization, and through the use of selected reference tools that yield relevant information.
Solomon (1858-1942) at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893, created mission schools and settlement houses and provided aid for newly arrived Jewish immigrant women and children (see Labor and Progressive Reform Organizations in the Manuscript section).
Between 18 more than two million Jewish immigrants came to the United States, most often in family units.
Five playscripts written by the Socialist reformer, lecturer, and labor agitator Rose Pastor Stokes (1879-1933), who was on the staff of the New York Yidishes tageblatt (Jewish daily news), are in the [Library of Congress] Manuscript Division, as is a collection of sixteen items from social worker Pauline Goldmark (1874-1962), who was an executive of the New York office of the National Consumers' League.
Other first-generation Jewish women became union leaders and political radicals.
American Jewish women began to find new voices at the same time that Americans responded to Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, which appeared in 1963.
Some participated in campus upheavals, civil rights marches, and protests against the war in Vietnam.
The women's liberation movement also appealed to many American Jewish women.
They entered the Reform and Conservative rabbinate and sought parity with men in religious life, while Orthodox women began to learn traditional texts generally reserved for men.
Jewish women first arrived in North America in 1654 when a boatload of refugees — four women, six men, and thirteen children — fleeing Dutch Brazil after its reconquest by the Portuguese landed in New Amsterdam, now New York City.